(2003) Biochemistry 42, 746–754]. (increased thyroid tumors in male and female rats). demonstrated that fenpyroximate, a strong inhibitor of bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), binds to the ND5 subunit [Nakamaru-Ogiso, E., et al. T. urticae develops resistances to many being used on many crops worldwide to control T. urticae (Van different classes of acaricides when they are heavily used, resulting Leeuwen et al., 2009). Humans and rats have the same of the mechanism of action which produced Fipronil-induced thyroid tumors in the rat; however, the rat appears to be more highly sensitive than humans. The non-target effects of acaricides, used against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) the coconut mite, on its natural enemies are not known. Using a photoaffinity labeling technique, Nakamaru-Ogiso et al. Phenoxypyrazole: Fenpyroximate is an acaricide also causes rapid knockdown effect against larvae, nymphs and adults, mainly by contact and ingestion. In this study, we determined fenpyroximate resistance levels for 11 P. ulmi populations from Iran and a spirodiclofen-resistant strain from Germany (PSR-TK). Base rotations for resistance management on the mode of action number only. Fenpyroximate, a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor of complex I (METI-I), is a commonly used acaricide to control this pest. Beside this, it also has some moulting inhibitory activity on nymphs and also serves as an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport at complex I. Thomas Van Leeuwen, Luc Tirry, Atsushi Yamamoto, Ralf Nauen, Wannes Dermauw, The economic importance of acaricides in the control of phytophagous mites and an update on recent acaricide mode of action research, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.12.009, 121, (12-21), (2015). The European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), is one of the most important apple orchard pests worldwide. Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. The P450 and esterase enzymes might play a role in the mechanism of resistance to fenpyroximate. in a huge demand for acaricides with novel modes of action (Suh The present study examines selection for fenpyroximate resis- et al., 2006). This informs the symptomology, speed of action and other properties of the actives therein and not for any resistance management purpose. This mode of action is similar to the cyclodienes, however, the exact binding site for fipronil in the GABA gated chloride channel may be distinct from that of the cyclodienes and picrotoxinin (Gant et al. 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